With this finding a mitragyna speciosa products concern arises whether this minor contamination would affect the toxicity of MSE or MIT (from Japan) in the cell based studies. We therefore chose to use spiking experiments where chloroform was added to MSE at known concentrations and the effect of the mixture on cell toxicity was determined. The clonogenicity experiments using SH-SY5Y cells indicated that the chloroform contamination did not pose any obvious cytotoxic effects to level up of 500 uM concentrations which is far beyond that expectated to be in the MSE. Smoking Kratom On Foil East Lempster m chloroform with MSE effects alone or chloroform alone (these data are from collaboration experiments with Thomas Randall ICL).
From these estimates it appears that the SH-SY5Y cells are the most sensitive of those examined to the cytotoxic and possibly cytostatic effect of MSE. Based upon my estimation of 42% MIT-like compound in MSE extract the SHSY5Y cell IC50 for MSE is equal to 9. M MIT-like compound.
Genotoxicity testing Cell death 1. Mechanisms of apoptotic and necrotic cell death 1. Apoptosis pathways 1.
The page you are looking for cannot be found.Adobe XMP Core 4. Acrobat Distiller 9. Producer(Acrobat Distiller 9.DTD XHTML 1. Full Spectrum means an increase in concentrations of all the alkaloids found in Kratom.
Diagram showing the cross-talk of organelles during cell death. Cells can execute cell death via apoptosis or caspase- independent pathway (necrosislike PCD or apoptosis-like PCD). Kerr et al (1971 1972) introduced the concept of apoptosis (Zong and Thompson 2006).
To date despite the chemical and pharmacological effects which are well established there is no published report on the potential cytotoxicity of this plant or its derivatives. To my knowledge this study is the first to assess cytotoxicity potential of MSE and MIT. MIT is believed to be a major contributor to the analgesic effects of this plant.
LIST OF FIGURES 1. usual kratom dose Treating ailments with phytopharmaceuticals is immemorial. In fact almost every culture in diverse global populations uses various forms o its local plants to treat illnesses (Houghton 2001). The use of traditional medicines from natural products mainly of terrestrial (higher) plants is increasingly high especially in developing countries as modern medicine is considered expensive. Although the safety and efficacy of most of the traditional medicines for human use are yet to be thoroughly investigated people still turn to its use due to its availability. In Malaysia one of the pytopharmaceutical sources with unique therapeutic properties is Mitragyna speciosa Korth.
Biochemical assessments confirmed that MSE induced cell death independent of p53 or caspases pathway while MIT cell death appeared to be associated with p53 and caspases pathway. The involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in MSE and MIT mediating cell death was performed using SH-SY5Y cells. The results appeared negative for both MSE and MIT treated cells. Collectively the findings of these studies suggest that MSE and its dominant alkaloid MIT produced cytotoxicity effects at high dose. Thus the Smoking Kratom On Foil East Lempster consumption of Mitragyna speciosa Korth leaves may pose harmful effects to users if taken at high dose and the evidence for involvement of CYP 2E1 in increasing the MSE cytotoxicity suggests that caution may be required if the leaves are to be taken with CYP 2E1 inducers. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This thesis is the account of my three years of devoted work in kratom hangover depression the field of toxicology at the Department of Biomolecular Medicine Faculty of Medicine Imperial College Smoking Kratom On Foil East Smoking Kratom On Foil East Lempster Lempster London which would not have been possible without the help of many.
Additional clonogenicity assays using chloroform and combinations of chloroform and MSE were also carried out to determine whether potential chloroform contamination of MSE could influence cytotoxicity. MSE were unable to generate colonies. Clonogenicity of A) HEK 293 cells and B) SH-SY5Y cells after 24 hr treatment with MSE. MIT treatment of SH-SY5Y cells as shown in figure 2. MSE (figure 2. MIT-like compound (based on the analysis Smoking Kratom On Foil East Lempster described in section 2. This is equivalent to 4.