Although the safety and efficacy of most of the traditional medicines for human use are yet to be thoroughly investigated people still turn to its use due to its availability. Indo White Kratom in Malaysia one of the pytopharmaceutical sources with unique therapeutic properties is Mitragyna speciosa Korth. The leaves of this plant have been used traditionally as a stimulant and have been reported to be effective as an opium substitute antidiarrhea antitussive and antidepression (Shellard 1974; Suwarnlet 1976; Kumarnsit et al 2007).
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Treating ailments with phytopharmaceuticals is immemorial. In fact almost every culture in diverse global populations uses various forms of its local plants to treat illnesses (Houghton 2001). The use of traditional medicines from natural products mainly of terrestrial (higher) plants is increasingly high especially in developing countries as modern medicine is considered expensive. Although the safety and efficacy bali kratom vs opiates of most of the traditional medicines for human use are yet to be thoroughly investigated people still turn to its use due to its availability. In Malaysia one of the pytopharmaceutical sources with unique therapeutic properties is Mitragyna speciosa Korth. The leaves of this plant have been used traditionally as a stimulant and have been reported to be effective as an opium substitute antidiarrhea antitussive and antidepression (Shellard 1974; Suwarnlet 1976; Kumarnsit et al 2007).
Drug discovery from plants and the central nervous system 1. Safety concern on the use of pharmaceutical from plant The plant Mitragyna
kratom legal in colorado waimea speciosa Korth and Mitragynine 1. Description of the plant 1. Chemical constituents of the plant 1. Biological activity of this plant Xenobiotic-induced cytotoxicity The cell cycle 1. Review of the cell cycle 1.
When the DNA damage occurs during cell cycle phases such as Indo White Kratom during DNA replication correction needs to be performed to avoid permanent mutation in subsequent DNA replications. A repair system called mismatch repair (MMR) recognises and repairs the erroneous insertion deletion and mis-incorporation during DNA replications and also recombination (Iyer et al 2006). C pairing bases will be repaired by excising the wrong bases and replace it with the right nucleotides. Exogenous DNA damaging agents or endogenous ROS formation can cause double DNA strand breaks (DSBs) which promote genome rearrangements and thus initiate carcinogenesis or apoptosis ( Hoiejmakers 2001; Alteiri et al 2008).
However under circumstances such as any failure of these defense systems or under the increased burden of overt toxicity this will trigger a series of cytotoxicity events involving the cellular components and or DNA. In the case of xenobiotic induced DNA damage if repair is not complete and DNA damage is severe this may lead to cell death or mutation and genetic alterations which could lead to other major problems such as carcinogenesis. The cell cycle can be defined as a highly regulated series of events that leads to eukaryotic cell reproduction (Morgan 2007).
- In principle GGR works by eliminating the lesions from the entire genome whereas TCR repairs the damage at DNA strands that actively transcribe the gene (Altieri et al 2008)
- In this part of the study therefore the in vitro toxicology of MSE and MIT has been examined with several mammalian cell lines
- These alkaloids resemble yohimbine in structure but do not have the same effects
- In the early stage of cell death research apoptosis and necrosis was described as different forms of cell death (Wyllie et al 1980)
- The dominant effects seem to be similar to opiate drugs including analgesia roughly comparable in strength to codeine
- The leaves were identified with the help of a police officer from the Narcotic Department of Selangor state and further verified by a researcher from the Herbal and Medicine Research Centre (HMRC) of the Institute of Medical Research (IMR) Kuala Lumpur